Semester 2: Archetypes and Individuation

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Semester 2: Archetypes and individuation.

Carli Castellani is your program coordinator and your guide through the course – contact her with course inquiries here:

For any administrative/finance issues, contact

Here are some notes:

Course Materials for Clinical Concepts:

Each module contains the following materials:

1.  Reading Pack — approximately 2-5 articles each month, selected by the module’s presenter;
2.  Module Applications — reflection prompts for the module, to aid in integrating the material explored;
3.  Live 60 minute lecture followed by a 30 minute Q&A discussion session on Zoom with the presenter. (dates below)
4.  Recording of the live recording, posted shortly after it has taken place; and
5.  A 15 question quiz, to gauge your understanding of the concepts presented (required for those completing the course for CPD credits).

Course Format:  

Each module runs over a two week period.  We email a notice, as well as post the new materials on the Facebook forum on that date, including the event details and joining link for the live Q&A session.

You can also access the materials on the CAJS website at that time, when you are logged into your account here.

Course Process:

Complete the readings, prior to the live presentation and Q&A with the presenter.

Bring your thoughts and questions to the live Q&A discussion.

Work through the module applications, to deepen your personal experience with the module content, and explore how it may relate to your clinical practice and professional development.  You are welcome to share your application work and reflections in the private Facebook forum.

Complete the short quiz by the end of the module — note this must be done directly on the CAJS website, when you are logged in to your account.

Facebook Forum:

The private Facebook Forum is available for sharing and discussion with others in the course, as we move through each module, and we encourage your participation there. Please follow this link to join

Again, thank you for joining Clinical Concepts.  I look forward to our journey together, and hearing from you as we get underway.


Individuaton: Jungian Clinical Reflections

Jung’s experience as a child of having ‘two personalities’ impacted the development of analytical psychology in numerous ways, but its most important influence was upon the emergence of Jung’s notion of individuation. Individuation, the central notion of analytical psychology, is all about the avoidance of one-sidedness. Through the operation of the ‘transcendent function’ Jung saw individuation as a way to transform creatively in the direction of wholeness.

In his later psychology in particular, Jung became particularly interested in utilising these ideas to overcome the dominant Cartesian split within modern consciousness, and specifically the dichotomy between the psychological dimensions of interiority and exteriority.  The three arenas in which he was able to explore this question at the greatest depth were Transference/Countertransference, Alchemy and Synchronicity. It was his research into these three topics that enabled Jung to extend the notion of psyche beyond the individual and to put into question the subject/object divide.  My goal in this seminar is to explore Jung’s notion of the extended psyche through a clinical lens. I want to look at how individuation shows up within the analytic vessel and particularly through the trans-subjective energetic field that Jung called “the third”. My aim is to show how a Jungian approach to these clinical questions differs from, for example, the psychoanalytic approach.  I will then go on to explore the possibility that these ideas of Jung offer an opening toward the psychosocial, potentially enabling us to make an authentically Jungian contribution to political and social questions.

presented by Dr. Mark Saban

Mark Saban, P.h.D, is a senior Jungian analyst (a member of the Independent Group of Analytical Psychologists) and a lecturer in Jungian and post-Jungian studies in the Department of Psychosocial and Psychoanalytic Studies, Essex University. He recently co-edited Analysis and Activism – Social and Political Contributions of Jungian Psychology, Ed. Emilija Kiehl, Mark Saban, & Andrew Samuels (Routledge) 2016 (Finalist American Board and Academy of Psychoanalysis Book Prize, Nominated Gradiva Award for Best Edited Book). Recent articles include, Jung, Winnicott and the divided psyche, Journal of Analytical Psychology, 2016, 61, 3, 329–349 and Secrete e Bugie. Un’area cieca nella psycologia junghiana, Rivista di psicologia analitica, 2017, n. 43 Volume 95.His website

Live Lecture & Discussion

Bonus Lecture
Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious

This bonus lecture by Dr. Mark Saban addresses the place of Archetypes and the Collective unconscious in Jung’s psychology, with a particular focus on clinical applications of these concepts. In the first part of the seminar  Dr. Saban outlines Jung’s ideas about archetypes and the role they play within his overall psychology, then he moves onto various critical approaches to the archetype that have arisen in post-Jungian literature. With these critiques in mind, Dr. Saban will then move onto the ways archetypes show up in clinical practice and how archetypal theory can inform work with patients, with a particular emphasis upon the experiential dimension of the archetype and its relation to dream, complex, and symptom.

The slides for the presentation can be found at this link, and the video recording can be watched below:

Bonus Lecture Reading Material

Below is a selection of readings provided by Mark Saban, for the bonus lecture on Archetypes.

Main Lecture – Reading Material

Click on the links below to download your articles for this module.

Application – Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious

The Psyche having a self-regulating function, and seeking wholeness, was explored in the bonus lecture for this module.  We also looked at archetypes, and archetypal experiences, as arising in our lives as a form of compensation for one-sidedness (also discussed in the main lecture), or as an attempt to provide a solution for a psychological problem.  In this quote that was shared, Jung observed:


The archetypes have their own initiative and their own specific energy, which enable them not only to produce a meaningful interpretation (in their own style) but also to intervene in a given situation with their own impulses and thought-forms. In this respect they function like complexes, which also enjoy a certain autonomy in everyday life. They come and go very much as they please, and they often interfere with our conscious intentions in an embarrassing way. CW18 §546

For Reflection:

a) In your current life, is there an archetypal experience in play?  If so, identify and reflect upon some of the ways it has come to your attention, or entered your life (through dreams, synchronicities, specific life changes or situations, etc.).

b)  In your clinical practice, identify one or two ways an awareness of archetypal experiences, and ways they arise, would be useful (with a specific case in mind, or the individuals you work with in general).


Theatres of Individuation

This module explores the meaning of individuation through stage representations of crisis and transformation. Individuation is a central idea in Jungian psychology. The project of developing and integrating one’s self over the course of a lifetime is rarely explored in other schools of depth psychology; we will consider some of the meanings and opportunities that open out from this idea.

I will use scenes from opera, music theatre, and film to explore individuation as it appears in different characters and narratives. We will see how staged symbols connect unconscious archetypal material with ego consciousness in ways that support and direct various processes. The amplified images, patterned situations, and articulated emotions of screen and stage works are designed to reflect not merely our desires, but all the things that engage us, positive and negative. We use these materials to dream ourselves through the joys and disasters that make up our lives, opening up unexpected possibilities for our own individuation.

presented by Dr. Paul Attinello

Paul Attinello is a diplomate analyst who studied at the C. G. Jung-Institut in Zürich, as well as a senior lecturer at Newcastle University. He has taught at the University of Hong Kong and as a guest professor at UCLA, received his PhD from UCLA, and has lived and worked on four continents. He has published in a number of journals, collections and reference works on contemporary musics, HIV/AIDS, and cultural, philosophical and psychological topics.

Live Lecture & Discussion

Reading Material

Click on the links below to download your articles for this module.

Application – Theatres of Individuation

a)  In this module, songs and theatre pieces are used to evoke various stages of the individuation process, through their emotional content, dramatic moments and turning points they may contain.  Contemplate a stage of self-growth, transition, or even confrontation with disparate parts of yourself, that you have experienced at some point in your own life.  Then choose a song that reflects or relates to what you were experiencing at that time, in retrospect.  If not a song, perhaps a visual art work or a scene from a movie, tv show or book may speak more directly to what you remember of the process. Explore for yourself how that work speaks to that experience.

b)  Now contemplate your clinical work or practice. Choose a song or playlist that speaks to your practice as you currently engage in it, or as it is developing.  With that selected music (or other artwork), reflect upon the telos of your work, your therapy setting and practice, and your relationship with it now.  What does that music or art piece evoke?

Note – You are welcome to share your application on the private Facebook forum for this course.


Cultural Complexes in the Life of Individuals, Groups and Nation States

Cultural Complexes are ubiquitous in the psyches of individuals and groups. Their deep and unconscious effects can be enormously destructive as well as provide a strong sense of identity.  This lecture will explore the notion of cultural complexes and how they live inside us as individuals, as members of groups, and as citizens of nation states. The lecture is based on a series of articles and books that I have written and edited over the past two decades that have focused on complexes in Australia, Latin America, Europe, Southeast Asia and the United States. The initial part of the lecture will provide a history of the development of the idea in the Jungian tradition and a working definition of the concept through elucidating its characteristics. We will then explore the notion through examples both in individuals and in large groups. In the context of unfolding events in Russia, the Ukraine, and the response of the rest of the world, we will work together to see how the concept of cultural complexes may shed some light on this current world crisis.

presented by Thomas Singer M.D.

Thomas Singer, MD is a psychiatrist and Jungian psychoanalyst who trained at Yale Medical School, Dartmouth Medical School, and the C.G. Jung Institute of San Francisco.  He is the author and editor of many articles and books, including a series of books on cultural complexes in Australia, Latin America, Europe, Southeast Asia, and the United States.  Cultural Complexes and the Soul of America won the IAJS award for Best Edited Book of 2020.  In addition, Dr. Singer has co-edited a series of books on Ancient Greece/Modern Psyche.  He serves on the Board of ARAS (Archive for Research into Archetypal Symbolism) and has edited ARAS Connections for many years.)

Live Lecture & Discussion

***UPDATED*** Reading Material (at Oct. 25, 2023)

Click on the links below to download your articles for this module.

Notes: Tom Singer will  spend a fair amount of time talking about “Archetypal Defenses of the Group Spirit” which get activated in conjunction with cultural complexes.  The readings below have been grouped into 3 essential readings, recommended to be read prior to the lecture if possible. The other papers & bibliography are provided as supplemental resourses for further reading if interested.  ~ Carli, at Oct. 25, 2023

Application – Cultural Complexes

In this month’s module on Cultural Complexes, we touch on the way Personal and Cultural Complexes share some markers, such as “Powerful Moods” and “Repetitive Behaviors”, ones that are sometimes triggered by certain words or phrases. For cultural complexes, Thomas Singer notes:

“Even when not in the grips of cultural complexes, the collective psyche tends to “think” and “feel” in simplistic ways. When aroused, the “collective psyche” behaves much more like a beast than a rational being. The beast of the collective psyche is prone to simplistic thinking, abrupt emotional swings, and crude behavior. Rarely does the beast of the collective psyche engage in what we tend to value most in psychology and social life — differentiated dialogue and exchange.”

For reflection on these concepts:

a) Identify some cultural trigger words or phrases that evoke your irrational side, a strong mood or some repetitive behaviors. Ones that stir your inner “beast”. What do they look and feel like for you?

b) For your work and practice, identify some ways you encounter cultural complexes arising in the population you work with — either through patterns of behavior they present; trigger words or phrases they use; or some other indicators. How can an awareness of cultural complexes assist you, in your role as a therapist?

Note – You are welcome to share your application on the private Facebook forum for this course.


Race and Class in Analysis (Cultural Complexes)

Race and Class permeate every aspect of our lives. These linked matters will be explored both clinically and more generally from a post-Jungian perspective.  They will be seen as part of an intersectional approach which encompasses our varying cultural influences.

My aim is to invoke an open atmosphere in which we can all be free to fail, or say things which feel uncomfortable so that we can explore these issues without feeling self-conscious or frozen by guilt or fear.  Racism and class prejudice are forms of hatred which we can all fall into at times.  He who casts the first stone….

These topics inevitably touch on the topic of refugees.  More pertinent than ever during this alarming period of warring conflict in Ukraine, it is useful to remember these words:

“Every American who ever lived, with the exception of one group, was either an immigrant himself or descendent of immigrants” (from JFK, A Nation of Immigrants.  HarperCollins 1964).

presented by Ruth Williams, MA

Ruth Williams is a Training and Supervising Analyst at the Association of Jungian Analysts in London.  She is the author of Jung: The Basics (2019 Routledge) and Exploring Spirituality from a Post-Jungian Perspective: Clinical and Personal Reflections (Routledge forthcoming 2023).  See:

Live Lecture & Discussion

Reading & Viewing Material

Click on the links below to download your articles for this module, including an overview with suggested reading/viewing.

Overview:  Essential & Suggested Reading/Viewing Materials

Three of the Essential Readings noted in the above overview are provided below for download.  The Eddo-Lodge book, and Olufemi O. Taiwo’s chapter of “Climate Reparations” are not available here – they can be considered “Highly Recommended Essential Reading” or “Highly Recommended Suggested Reading” for our purposes.

Essential Viewing Material

The video that can be viewed here: 

Gary Young on Race, Racism & Identity (12.31 mins)

Additionally, Presenter Ruth Williams asks you to watch either or both of the following films, which we will discuss during the live session.  We are unable to provide copies of these films, but you should be able to source streaming versions of them, the links below are for Amazon UK, as an example of where to locate them. 

Hidden Figures (Dir: Melfi, 2017) 


Educating Rita (Dir: Gilbert, 2018) 

Application – Race and Class

The perception of racism being akin to a psychotic state, with a mechanism that includes “…paranoid splitting of objects into the loved and the hated, with the racial other becoming the container for the split-off, hated aspect, which is feared and attacked;” was discussed in this month’s readings.

In thinking about areas of splitting or projection in your own life and practice, reflect upon the following:

a) Spend some time contemplating a perceived “other” in your life, perhaps a colleague, a neighbor, or someone else that you may not have regular contact with, but when you do, you find yourself somewhat unsettled, jostled or vaguely uneasy. Who is that other? What feelings, associations and memories do they invoke in you?

b) For your clinical practice, contemplate ways your clients bring their “loved and hated” objects into the therapy room, and how you encounter those containers. What themes and patterns are you seeing in your therapeutic work?